Limonene is one of the most widely distributed terpenes, colourless liquid, occurs in many volatile oils, in some as the main constituent, especially in pine and citrus oils. It exists in two isomeric forms called d-limonene and l-limonene. This oil possess a pleasant orange-like odour. When protected against access of air and light, limonene is comparatively stable; otherwise it oxidises readily.
D-Limonene (formely called carvene or citrine) has been identified in oil of orange (about 90 per cent), lemon, mandarin, lime, grapefruit, bergamot, neroli, petitgrain, elemi, caraway (40 per cent), dill, fennel, celery (60 per cent), etc. D-Limonene is converted to l-carvone which has a caraway seed flavour. It smells like the citrus fruit and is generally used in beauty and cleaning products.
L-limonene has a piney, lemony, turpentine-like odour and occurs in several pine needle oils, the cone oil of Abies alba, Russian turpentine oil, star anise, menthe arvensis, peppermint, spearmint, etc.
Limonene is widely used as a flavor and fragrance additive in consumer products, such as perfumes, beverages, detergents, and soaps. It is further used as an ingredient in household cleaning products.
In addition to its use in a variety of consumable products, limonene is used as a starting material for the synthesis of various natural products, such as p-cymene. The wide application of limonene in industry and domestic amenities coupled to its vulnerability to ozone aided oxidation has raised research interest to investigate its various biochemical and pharmacological properties. It is widely employed for the scenting of cosmetics, soaps and all kinds of technical goods, as well as for flavouring of pharmaceuticals.
Colourless to pale yellow liquid
Citrus, pine, turpentine-like odour
0.837-0.842 @ 25°C
1.469-1.473 @ 20°C
100% Pure and Natural
Soluble in alcohol; insoluble in water